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Aichi Goal B

Aichi Goal B

Reduce the direct pressures on biodiversity and promote sustainable use

Mapping with Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework


The integrity, connectivity and resilience of all ecosystems are maintained, enhanced, or restored, substantially increasing the area of natural ecosystems by 2050;

Human induced extinction of known threatened species is halted, and, by 2050, extinction rate and risk of all species are reduced tenfold and the abundance of native wild species is increased to healthy and resilient levels;

The genetic diversity within populations of wild and domesticated species, is maintained, safeguarding their adaptive potential.


Headline indicators:

  • A.1 Red List of Ecosystems
  • A.2 Extent of natural ecosystems
  • A.3 Red List Index
  • A.4 The proportion of populations within species with an effective population size > 500

Component indicators:

  • Ecosystem Intactness Index
  • Ecosystem Integrity Index
  • Species Habitat Index
  • Biodiversity Habitat Index
  • Protected Connected (Protconn) index
  • Parc connectedness
  • EDGE
  • Living Planet Index Change in the extent of water-related ecosystems over time

Complementary indicators:

  • Forest area as a proportion of total land area
  • Forest distribution
  • Tree cover loss
  • Grassland and savannah extent
  • Mountain Green Cover Index
  • Peatland extent and condition
  • Permafrost thickness, depth and extent
  • Continuous global mangrove forest cover
  • Trends in mangrove forest fragmentation
  • Trends in mangrove extent
  • Live coral cover
  • Hard coral cover and composition
  • Global coral reef extent
  • Global seagrass extent (Seagrass Cover and composition)
  • Global saltmarsh extent
  • Kelp canopy extent
  • Macroalgal canopy cover and composition
  • Cover of key benthic groups
  • Fleshy algae cover
  • Wetland Extent Trends Index
  • Change in the extent of inland water ecosystems over time
  • Forest Fragmentation Index
  • Forest Landscape Integrity Index
  • Biomass of selected natural ecosystems 
  • Biodiversity Habitat Index
  • Global Vegetation Health Products
  • Bioclimatic Ecosystem Resilience Index (BERI)
  • Relative magnitude of fragmentation (RMF)
  • Ecosystem Intactness Index
  • Biodiversity Intactness Index
  • Ocean Health Index
  • Extent of physical damage indicator to predominant seafloor habitats physical damage
  • Wetland Extent Trends Index
  • River Fragmentation Index
  • Dendritic Connectivity Index
  • Percentage of threatened species that are improving in status according to the Red List
  • Number of threatened species by species group
  • Wild bird index
  • Mean Species Abundance (MSA)
  • Species Protection Index
  • Changes in plankton biomass and abundance
  • Fish abundance and biomass
  • Genetic scorecard for wild species
  • Species richness/Changes in local terrestrial diversity (PREDICTS)
  • Marine species richness
  • Comprehensiveness of conservation of socioeconomically as well as culturally valuable species
  • Number of plant and animal genetic resources for food and agriculture secured in either medium- or long-term conservation facilities
  • Proportion of local breeds classified as being at risk of extinction
  • Red List Index (wild relatives of domesticated animals)
  • CMS Connectivity Indicator
  • Species Status Index
  • Intact Wilderness
  • Expected Loss of Phylogenetic diversity
  • Proportion of populations maintained within species
  • Free flowing rivers