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Aichi Target 15

Aichi Target 15

By 2020, ecosystem resilience and the contribution of biodiversity to carbon stocks has been enhanced, through conservation and restoration, including restoration of at least 15 per cent of degraded ecosystems, thereby contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation and to combating desertification.

Mapping with SPMS 2015-2023

CMS Target 11

Migratory species and their habitats which provide important ecosystem services are maintained at or restored to favourable conservation status, taking into account the needs of women, indigenous and local communities, and the poor and vulnerable.

Mapping with Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework

TARGET 2. Restore 30% of all Degraded Ecosystems

Ensure that by 2030 at least 30 per cent of areas of degraded terrestrial, inland water, and coastal and marine ecosystems are under effective restoration, in order to enhance biodiversity and ecosystem functions and services, ecological integrity and connectivity.

Headline Indicator
  • 2.2 Area under restoration
Component indicator
  • Extent of natural ecosystems by type
  • Maintenance and restoration of connectivity of natural ecosystems
Complementary indicator
  • Habitat distributional range
  • Index of Species Rarity Sites, High Biodiversity Areas, Large Mammal Landscapes, Intact Wilderness and Climate Stabilization Areas
  • Increase in secondary natural forest cover
  • Annual tropical primary tree cover loss
  • Forest Landscape Integrity Index
  • Global Ecosystem Restoration Index
  • Free flowing rivers
  • Percentage of cropped landscapes with at least 10 per cent of natural land
  • Bioclimatic Ecosystem Resilience Index (BERI)
  • Priority retention of intact / wilderness areas
  • Status of key biodiversity areas
  • Biodiversity Habitat Index
  • Red List Index
  • Red List of Ecosystems
  • Living Planet Index
  • Species habitat Index

 

TARGET 8. Minimize the Impacts of Climate Change on Biodiversity and Build Resilience

Minimize the impact of climate change and ocean acidification on biodiversity and increase its resilience through mitigation, adaptation, and disaster risk reduction actions, including through nature-based solution and/or ecosystem-based approaches, while minimizing negative and fostering positive impacts of climate action on biodiversity.

Headline indicator
  • -
Component indicator
  • Total climate regulation services provided by ecosystems and by ecosystem type (System of Environmental Economic Accounts)
  • Number of countries that adopt and implement national disaster risk reduction strategies in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030 which include biodiversity
  • National greenhouse inventories from land use and land-use change
  • BERI
Complementary indicator
  • Above-ground biomass stock in forest (tonnes/ha)
  • National greenhouse inventories from land use and land-use change
  • Proportion of local governments that adopt and implement local disaster risk reduction strategies in line with national disaster risk reduction strategies
  • Number of least developed countries and small island developing States with nationally determined contributions, long-term strategies, national adaptation plans, strategies as reported in adaptation communications and national communications
  • Index of coastal eutrophication
  • Carbon stocks and annual net greenhouse gas emissions, by land-use category, split by natural and non-natural land cover

 

Mapping with Sustainable Development Goals

SDG Target 2.4

By 2030, ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters and that progressively improve land and soil quality

SDG Goal 6

Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all

SDG Target 6.4

By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity

SDG Target 6.5

By 2030, implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate

SDG Target 6.6

By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes

SDG Goal 7

Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all

SDG Target 7.1

By 2030, ensure universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services

SDG Target 8.4

Improve progressively, through 2030, global resource efficiency in consumption and production and endeavour to decouple economic growth from environmental degradation, in accordance with the 10‑Year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and Production, with developed countries taking the lead

SDG Goal 9

Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation

SDG Target 9.1

Develop quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure, including regional and transborder infrastructure, to support economic development and human well-being, with a focus on affordable and equitable access for all

SDG Target 9.4

By 2030, upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to make them sustainable, with increased resource-use efficiency and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes, with all countries taking action in accordance with their respective capabilities

SDG Goal 10

Reduce inequality within and among countries

SDG Target 10.1

By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40 per cent of the population at a rate higher than the national average

SDG Target 10.2

By 2030, empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all, irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status

SDG Goal 11

Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable

SDG Target 11.4

Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage

SDG Target 11.5

By 2030, significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of people affected and substantially decrease the direct economic losses relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with a focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations

SDG Target 12.2

By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources

SDG Target 12.b

Develop and implement tools to monitor sustainable development impacts for sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products

SDG Goal 13

Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts*

SDG Target 13.1

Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries

SDG Target 13.2

Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning

SDG Goal 14

Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development

SDG Target 14.1

By 2025, prevent and significantly reduce marine pollution of all kinds, in particular from land-based activities, including marine debris and nutrient pollution

SDG Target 14.2

By 2020, sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse impacts, including by strengthening their resilience, and take action for their restoration in order to achieve healthy and productive oceans

SDG Target 14.3

Minimize and address the impacts of ocean acidification, including through enhanced scientific cooperation at all levels

SDG Target 14.4

By 2020, effectively regulate harvesting and end overfishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and destructive fishing practices and implement science-based management plans, in order to restore fish stocks in the shortest time feasible, at least to levels that can produce maximum sustainable yield as determined by their biological characteristics

SDG Target 14.5

By 2020, conserve at least 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, consistent with national and international law and based on the best available scientific information

SDG Target 14.6

By 2020, prohibit certain forms of fisheries subsidies which contribute to overcapacity and overfishing, eliminate subsidies that contribute to illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and refrain from introducing new such subsidies, recognizing that appropriate and effective special and differential treatment for developing and least developed countries should be an integral part of the World Trade Organization fisheries subsidies negotiation

SDG Target 14.b

Provide access for small-scale artisanal fishers to marine resources and markets

SDG Target 14.c

Enhance the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources by implementing international law as reflected in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, which provides the legal framework for the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources, as recalled in paragraph 158 of “The future we want”

SDG Goal 15

Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss

SDG Target 15.1

By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements

SDG Target 15.2

By 2020, promote the implementation of sustainable management of all types of forests, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests and substantially increase afforestation and reforestation globally

SDG Target 15.3

By 2030, combat desertification, restore degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification, drought and floods, and strive to achieve a land degradation-neutral world

SDG Target 15.4

By 2030, ensure the conservation of mountain ecosystems, including their biodiversity, in order to enhance their capacity to provide benefits that are essential for sustainable development

SDG Target 15.5

Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species

SDG Target 15.6

Promote fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and promote appropriate access to such resources, as internationally agreed

SDG Target 15.c

Enhance global support for efforts to combat poaching and trafficking of protected species, including by increasing the capacity of local communities to pursue sustainable livelihood opportunities

Mapping with 4th Ramsar Strategic Plan 2016-2024

Ramsar Target 12

Restoration is in progress in degraded wetlands, with priority to wetlands that are relevant for biodiversity conservation, disaster risk reduction, livelihoods and/or climate change mitigation and adaptation.

Baseline
  • 68% of Parties have identified priority sites for restoration. (National Reports to COP12).
  • 70% of Parties have implemented restoration or rehabilitation programmes. (National Reports to COP12).
Indicator
  • % of Parties that have established restoration plans [or activities] for sites. (Data source: National Reports).
  • % of Parties that have implemented effective restoration or rehabilitation projects. (Data source: National Reports).

Possible further indicators that may be developed

  • {Outcome-based indicators(s) related to (extent of) wetland restoration possibly including remote sensing as appropriate}.