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Ramsar Target 12

Ramsar Target 12

Restoration is in progress in degraded wetlands, with priority to wetlands that are relevant for biodiversity conservation, disaster risk reduction, livelihoods and/or climate change mitigation and adaptation.

  • 68% of Parties have identified priority sites for restoration. (National Reports to COP12).
  • 70% of Parties have implemented restoration or rehabilitation programmes. (National Reports to COP12).
  • % of Parties that have established restoration plans [or activities] for sites. (Data source: National Reports).
  • % of Parties that have implemented effective restoration or rehabilitation projects. (Data source: National Reports).

Possible further indicators that may be developed

  • {Outcome-based indicators(s) related to (extent of) wetland restoration possibly including remote sensing as appropriate}.

Mapping with Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework

TARGET 2. Restore 30% of all Degraded Ecosystems

Ensure that by 2030 at least 30 per cent of areas of degraded terrestrial, inland water, and coastal and marine ecosystems are under effective restoration, in order to enhance biodiversity and ecosystem functions and services, ecological integrity and connectivity.


Headline indicator:

  • 2.2 Area under restoration

Component indicators:

  • Extent of natural ecosystems by type
  • Maintenance and restoration of connectivity of natural ecosystems

Complementary indicators:

  • Habitat distributional range
  • Index of Species Rarity Sites, High Biodiversity Areas, Large Mammal Landscapes, Intact Wilderness and Climate Stabilization Areas
  • Increase in secondary natural forest cover
  • Annual tropical primary tree cover loss
  • Forest Landscape Integrity Index
  • Global Ecosystem Restoration Index
  • Free flowing rivers
  • Percentage of cropped landscapes with at least 10 per cent of natural land
  • Bioclimatic Ecosystem Resilience Index (BERI)
  • Priority retention of intact / wilderness areas
  • Status of key biodiversity areas
  • Biodiversity Habitat Index
  • Red List Index
  • Red List of Ecosystems
  • Living Planet Index
  • Species Habitat Index


TARGET 8. Minimize the Impacts of Climate Change on Biodiversity and Build Resilience

Minimize the impact of climate change and ocean acidification on biodiversity and increase its resilience through mitigation, adaptation, and disaster risk reduction actions, including through nature-based solution and/or ecosystem-based approaches, while minimizing negative and fostering positive impacts of climate action on biodiversity.


Headline indicator:

  • -

Component indicators:

  • Total climate regulation services provided by ecosystems and by ecosystem type (System of Environmental Economic Accounts)
  • Number of countries that adopt and implement national disaster risk reduction strategies in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030 which include biodiversity
  • National greenhouse inventories from land use and land-use change
  • BERI

Complementary indicators:

  • Above-ground biomass stock in forest (tonnes/ha)
  • National greenhouse inventories from land use and land-use change
  • Proportion of local governments that adopt and implement local disaster risk reduction strategies in line with national disaster risk reduction strategies
  • Number of least developed countries and small island developing States with nationally determined contributions, long-term strategies, national adaptation plans, strategies as reported in adaptation communications and national communications
  • Index of coastal eutrophication
  • Carbon stocks and annual net greenhouse gas emissions, by land-use category, split by natural and non-natural land cover
TARGET 11. Restore, Maintain and Enhance Nature’s Contributions to People

Restore, maintain and enhance nature’s contributions to people, including ecosystem functions and services, such as regulation of air, water, and climate, soil health, pollination and reduction of disease risk, as well as protection from natural hazards and disasters, through nature-based solutions and/or ecosystem-based approaches for the benefit of all people and nature.


Headline indicator:

  • B.1 Services provided by ecosystems*

Component indicators:

  • Number of deaths, missing persons and directly affected persons, attributed to disasters per 100,000 population
  • Mortality rate attributed to unsafe water, unsafe sanitation and lack of hygiene (exposure to unsafe Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for All (WASH) services
  • Annual mean levels of fine particulate matter (e.g., PM2.5 and PM10) in cities
  • Proportion of bodies of water with good ambient water quality
  • Level of water stress

Complementary indicators:

  • Air emission accounts
  • Proportion of local administrative units with established and operational policies and procedures for participation of local communities in water and sanitation management
  • Proportion of population using safely managed drinking water services
  • Mortality rate attributed to household and ambient air pollution (SDG indicator 3.9.1)

Mapping with Sustainable Development Goals

SDG Target 6.6

By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes

SDG Target 14.2

By 2020, sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse impacts, including by strengthening their resilience, and take action for their restoration in order to achieve healthy and productive oceans

SDG Target 14.4

By 2020, effectively regulate harvesting and end overfishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and destructive fishing practices and implement science-based management plans, in order to restore fish stocks in the shortest time feasible, at least to levels that can produce maximum sustainable yield as determined by their biological characteristics

SDG Target 15.1

By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements

SDG Target 15.2

By 2020, promote the implementation of sustainable management of all types of forests, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests and substantially increase afforestation and reforestation globally

SDG Target 15.3

By 2030, combat desertification, restore degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification, drought and floods, and strive to achieve a land degradation-neutral world

Mapping with CBD - Aichi Targets

Aichi Target 14

By 2020, ecosystems that provide essential services, including services related to water, and contribute to health, livelihoods and well-being, are restored and safeguarded, taking into account the needs of women, indigenous and local communities, and the poor and vulnerable.

Aichi Target 15

By 2020, ecosystem resilience and the contribution of biodiversity to carbon stocks has been enhanced, through conservation and restoration, including restoration of at least 15 per cent of degraded ecosystems, thereby contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation and to combating desertification.