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SDG Target 15.1

SDG Target 15.1

By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements

Mapping with Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework

TARGET 1. Plan and Manage all Areas To Reduce Biodiversity Loss

Ensure that all areas are under participatory integrated biodiversity inclusive spatial planning and/or effective management processes addressing land and sea use change, to bring the loss of areas of high biodiversity importance, including ecosystems of high ecological integrity, close to zero by 2030, while respecting the rights of indigenous peoples and local communities.

Indicators

Headline indicators:

  • A.1 Red List of Ecosystems
  • A.2 Extent of natural ecosystems
  • 1.1 Percent of land and sea area covered by biodiversity-inclusive spatial plans*

Component indicator:

  • Priority retention of intact / wilderness areas

 Complementary indicators:

  • Number of countries using natural capital accounts in planning processes
  • Percentage of spatial plans utilizing information on key biodiversity areas
  • Habitat patches located within marine protected areas or integrated coastal zone management (ICZM)
  • Other spatial management plans (not captured as ICZM or marine spatial planning)
  • Number of countries using ocean accounts in planning processes
  • Proportion of transboundary basin area with an operational arrangement for water cooperation
  • Percent of total land area that is under cultivation
  • Extent of natural ecosystems by type Number of countries implementing national legislation, policies or other measures regarding FPIC related to conservation
  • Ecosystem Integrity Index
 

 

TARGET 2. Restore 30% of all Degraded Ecosystems

Ensure that by 2030 at least 30 per cent of areas of degraded terrestrial, inland water, and coastal and marine ecosystems are under effective restoration, in order to enhance biodiversity and ecosystem functions and services, ecological integrity and connectivity.

Indicators

Headline indicator:

  • 2.2 Area under restoration

Component indicators:

  • Extent of natural ecosystems by type
  • Maintenance and restoration of connectivity of natural ecosystems

Complementary indicators:

  • Habitat distributional range
  • Index of Species Rarity Sites, High Biodiversity Areas, Large Mammal Landscapes, Intact Wilderness and Climate Stabilization Areas
  • Increase in secondary natural forest cover
  • Annual tropical primary tree cover loss
  • Forest Landscape Integrity Index
  • Global Ecosystem Restoration Index
  • Free flowing rivers
  • Percentage of cropped landscapes with at least 10 per cent of natural land
  • Bioclimatic Ecosystem Resilience Index (BERI)
  • Priority retention of intact / wilderness areas
  • Status of key biodiversity areas
  • Biodiversity Habitat Index
  • Red List Index
  • Red List of Ecosystems
  • Living Planet Index
  • Species Habitat Index

 

Mapping with The UNCCD 2018–2030 Strategic Framework

Strategic objective 1: Affected ecosystems

To improve the condition of affected ecosystems, combat desertification/land degradation, promote sustainable land management and contribute to land degradation neutrality

Indicators

UNCCD indicators:

  • SO 1-1 Trends in land cover
  • SO 1-2 Trends in land productivity or functioning of the land
  • SO 1-3 Trends in carbon stocks above and below ground
  • SO 1-4 Proportion of land that is degraded over total land area

SDG indicators:

  • 15.3.1 Proportion of land that is degraded over total land area

CBD indicators:

  • A.2 Extent of natural ecosystems
  • 2.2 Area under restoration 
  • Extent of natural ecosystems by type (Component indicator under target 2)
  • Proportion of total land area that is under cultivation (Complementary indicator under target 1)
  • Above-ground biomass stock in forests (tonnes/ha)  (Complementary indicator under target 8)
  • Changes in soil organic carbon stocks (Complementary indicator under target 10)
  • Proportion of land that is degraded over total land area (Complementary indicator under target 10)

 

Mapping with Strategic Plan for the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (2018-2027)

Target 1

By 2030, ensure sustainable food and agriculture production systems through the continued sustainable use and development of genetic resources and biodiversity for food and agriculture, supporting the implementation of resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters and that progressively improve land and soil quality.
 

Mapping with 4th Ramsar Strategic Plan 2016-2024

Ramsar Target 3

The public and private sectors have increased their efforts to apply guidelines and good practices for the wise use of water and wetlands.

Baseline
  • 50% of Parties report actions taken to implement incentive measures that encourage the conservation and wise use of wetlands. (National Reports to COP12).
  • 37% of Parties report actions taken to remove perverse incentive measures that discourage conservation and wise use of wetlands. (National Reports to COP12).
  • 60% of Parties report private sector undertaking activities for the conservation, wise use and management of wetlands in general. (National Reports to COP12).
  • % of Parties have national Ramsar Committees that include both governmental and non-governmental representation. (Data source: new question for National Reports).
Indicator
  • % of Parties reporting actions taken to implement incentive measures that encourage the conservation and wise use of wetlands. (Data source: National Reports).
  • % of Parties reporting actions taken to remove perverse incentive measures that discourage conservation and wise use of wetlands. (Data source: National Reports).
  • % of Parties reporting private sector undertaking activities for the conservation, wise use and management of wetlands in general. (Data source: National Reports).
  • % of Parties having national Ramsar Committees that include both governmental and non-governmental representation. (Data source: new question for National Reports).
Ramsar Target 5

The ecological character of Ramsar sites is maintained or restored, through effective planning and integrated management.

Baseline
  • At COP12, 973 Ramsar Sites have implemented management plans. (National Reports to COP12).
  • Number of Ramsar Sites that have effective, implemented management plans. (Data source: new National Report question).
  • 27% of Parties have made assessments of effective management of Ramsar sites. (National Reports to COP12).
  • 43% (950 of Ramsar Sites have updated Ramsar Information Sheets. (Report of the Secretary General pursuant to Article 8.2 COP12 Doc.7).
Indicator
  • Number of Ramsar Sites that have effective, implemented management plans. (Data source: National Report).
  • Number of Ramsar Sites that have effective, implemented management planning. (Data source: new National Report question).
  • % of Parties that have made assessments of effective management of Ramsar Sites. (Data source: National Reports).
  • % of Ramsar Sites that have updated Ramsar Information Sheets. (Data source: Ramsar Sites database).

Possible further indicators that may be developed

  • {Coverage of wetland dependent bird populations by designated Ramsar Sites. Indicator from Resolution IX.1 to be developed}.
  • {Coverage of wetland dependent non-avian populations by designated Ramsar Sites. Indicator from Resolution IX.1 to be developed}.
  • {% loss of IUCN Red Listed species from Ramsar Sites}
Ramsar Target 6

There is a significant increase in area, numbers and ecological connectivity in the Ramsar Site network, in particular under-represented types of wetlands including in under-represented ecoregions and Transboundary Sites.

Baseline
  • By COP12, 2,186 Ramsar Sites have been designated. (Ramsar Sites database).
  • By COP12 2,085,000 ha of Ramsar Sites have been designated. (Ramsar Sites database).
  • By COP12 [16] transboundary Ramsar Sites have been designated. (Ramsar Secretariat).
  • By COP12, Ramsar Sites have been designated for the following under-represented Ramsar Sites:
    • Karst and other subterranean hydrological systems – [110 Sites]
    • Coral reefs – [96 Sites]
    • Wet grasslands – [517 Sites]
    • Peatlands – [564 Sites]
    • Sea-grass beds – [249 Sites]
    • Mangroves – [280 Sites]
    • Temporary Pools – [729 Sites]
    • Bivalve (shellfish) reefs – [99 Sites]
    • (Ramsar Sites database, June 2015).
Indicator
  • Number of Ramsar sites that have been designated. (Data source: Ramsar Sites database).
  • Total hectares of Ramsar sites that have been designated. (Data source: Ramsar Sites database).
  • Number of transboundary Ramsar Sites that have been designated. (Data source: Ramsar Sites database).
  • Number of Ramsar Sites designated for the following underrepresented wetland types:
    • Karst and other subterranean hydrological systems – [XXX Sites]
    • Coral reefs – [XXX Sites]
    • Wet grasslands – [XXX Sites]
    • Peatlands – [XXX Sites]
    • Sea-grass beds – [XXX Sites]
    • Mangroves – [XXX Sites] T
    • emporary Pools – [XXX Sites]
    • Bivalve (shellfish) reefs – [XXX Sites]
    • (Data source: Ramsar Sites database).
Ramsar Target 7

Sites that are at risk of change of ecological character have threats addressed.

Baseline
  • At COP12, [47] Ramsar Sites (2.2%) are listed on the Montreux Record. (Report of the Secretary General pursuant to Article 8.2 COP12 Doc.7).
  • 21% of Parties have reported to the Ramsar Secretariat all cases of negative human- induced change or likely change in the ecological character of Ramsar sites pursuant to Article 3.2. (National Reports to COP12).
  • [76] Ramsar Sites reported by Parties to the Ramsar Secretariat of negative human-induced change or likely change in the ecological character of Ramsar Sites pursuant to Article 3.2. (Data source: Report of the Secretary General pursuant to Article 8.2 COP12 Doc.7).
  • 16% of Parties have taken actions to address the issues for which Ramsar sites have been listed on the Montreux Record. (National Reports to COP12).
Indicator
  • Number of Ramsar Sites removed from the Montreux Record. (Data source: Ramsar Site database).
  • % of Parties reporting to the Ramsar Secretariat all cases of negative human-induced change or likely change in the ecological character of Ramsar Sites pursuant to Article 3.2. (Data source: National Reports).
  • Number of Ramsar Sites reported by Parties to the Ramsar Secretariat of negative human-induced change or likely change in the ecological character of Ramsar Sites pursuant to Article 3.2. (Data source: National Reports).
  • % of Parties that have taken actions to address the issues for which Ramsar Sites have been listed on the Montreux Record. (National Reports to COP12).

Possible further indicators that may be developed

  • {Indicator(s) relating to (numbers of) Ramsar Sites at risk}
Ramsar Target 8

National wetland inventories have been initiated, completed or updated and disseminated and used for promoting the conservation and effective management of all wetlands.

Baseline
  • At COP12, 47% of Parties have a complete national wetlands inventory. (National Reports to COP12).
  • At COP13, [XX]% of Parties % of Parties have updated their national inventories in the last decade. (New question for National Reports).
Indicator
  • % of Parties that have complete national wetland inventories. (Data source: National Reports).
  • % of Parties that have updated their national inventories in the last decade. (Data source: new question for National Reports).
Ramsar Target 12

Restoration is in progress in degraded wetlands, with priority to wetlands that are relevant for biodiversity conservation, disaster risk reduction, livelihoods and/or climate change mitigation and adaptation.

Baseline
  • 68% of Parties have identified priority sites for restoration. (National Reports to COP12).
  • 70% of Parties have implemented restoration or rehabilitation programmes. (National Reports to COP12).
Indicator
  • % of Parties that have established restoration plans [or activities] for sites. (Data source: National Reports).
  • % of Parties that have implemented effective restoration or rehabilitation projects. (Data source: National Reports).

Possible further indicators that may be developed

  • {Outcome-based indicators(s) related to (extent of) wetland restoration possibly including remote sensing as appropriate}.
Ramsar Target 15

Ramsar Regional Initiatives with the active involvement and support of the Parties in each region are reinforced and developed into effective tools to assist in the full implementation of the Convention.

Baseline
  • By COP12, [15] Regional Initiatives are in operation under the framework of the Ramsar Convention. (Ramsar Secretariat).
  • 68% of Parties have been involved in the development and implementation of a Regional Initiative under the framework of the Convention. (National Reports to COP12).
Indicator
  • Number of Regional Initiatives successfully implemented. (Data source: National Reports).
  • % of Parties that have been involved in the development and implementation of a Regional Initiative under the framework of the Convention. (Data source: National Reports).
Ramsar Target 18

International cooperation is strengthened at all levels.

Baseline

Regional Initiatives

  • By COP12, [15] Regional Initiatives are in operation under the framework of the Ramsar Convention. (Ramsar Secretariat).
  • 68% of Parties have been involved in the development and implementation of a Regional Initiative under the framework of the Convention. (National Reports to COP12).

Other aspects of co-operation

  • 35% of Parties have established networks including twinning arrangements nationally or internationally for knowledge sharing and training for wetlands that share common features. (National Reports to COP12).
  • 33% of Parties have effective cooperative management in place for shared wetland systems (for example in shared river basins and coastal zones). (National Reports to COP12).
  • [XX]% of Parties have co-ordination mechanisms for the implementation of MEAs existing at a national level. (Data source: new question for National Reports).
  • At COP12, 168 Parties have acceded to the Ramsar Convention. (Report of the Secretary General to COP12 on the implementation of the Convention, COP12Doc8).
  • At COP12, [16] transboundary Ramsar Sites. (Data source: Ramsar Secretariat).
Indicator

Regional Initiatives

  • Number of Regional Initiatives successfully implemented. (Data source: National Reports).
  • % of Parties that have been involved in the development and implementation of a Regional Initiative under the framework of the Convention. (Data source: National Reports).

Other aspects of co-operation

  • % of Parties that have established networks including twinning arrangements nationally or internationally for knowledge sharing and training for wetlands that share common features. (Data source: National Reports).
  • % of Parties that have effective cooperative management in place for shared wetland systems (for example in shared river basins and coastal zones). (Data source: National Reports).
  • % of Parties where co-ordination mechanisms for the implementation of MEAs exist at a national level. (Data source: new question for National Reports).
  • Number of Parties which have acceded to the Ramsar Convention. (Data Source: National Reports).
  • Total number of transboundary Ramsar Sites. (Data source: Ramsar Sites Database).

Mapping with CITES Strategic Vision: 2021-2030

Objective 1.1 Parties comply with their obligations under the Convention

 Objective 1.1 Parties comply with their obligations under the Convention through the adoption and implementation of appropriate legislation, policies, and procedures.

Indicator
  • Indicator 1.1.1: Number of Parties that are in category 1 under the national legislation project.
  • Indicator 1.1.2: Number of Parties subject to CITES recommendations to suspend trade.
Objective 1.3 Implementation of the Convention at the national level is consistent with Resolutions and Decisions adopted by the CoP

Objective 1.3 Implementation of the Convention at the national level is consistent with Resolutions and Decisions adopted by the Conference of the Parties.

Indicator
  • Indicator 1.3.1: Number of Parties that have implemented relevant reporting under Resolutions and Decisions of the Conference of the Parties and/or Standing Committee recommendations.
Objective 1.5 Parties improve the conservation status of CITES-listed specimens

Objective 1.5 Parties improve the conservation status of CITES-listed specimens, put in place national conservation actions, support their sustainable use and promote cooperation in managing shared wildlife resources.

Indicator
  • Indicator 1.5.1: The conservation status of species listed on the CITES Appendices has stabilized or improved.
  • Indicator 1.5.2: Number of CITES-listed species for which Parties have put in place actions that support sustainable use
Objective 2.1 Parties’ non-detriment findings are based on best available scientific information

 Objective 2.1 Parties’ non-detriment findings are based on best available scientific information and their determination of legal acquisition is based on the best available technical and legal information.

Indicator
  • Indicator 2.1.1: Number of Parties that have adopted standard procedures for making non-detriment findings (NDFs).
  • Indicator 2.1.2: Number of written NDFs submitted and number of Parties submitting NDFs for posting in the CITES online database.
  • Indicator 2.1.3: Number of Parties that have included the legal acquisition finding obligation in their national regulatory framework, as recommended by Resolution Conf. 18.7 (Rev. CoP19).
Objective 4.1 Parties support sustainable wildlife trade policies

Objective 4.1 Parties support sustainable wildlife trade policies, especially those that increase the capacity of Indigenous peoples and local communities to pursue livelihoods.

Indicator
  • Indicator 4.1.1: Number of CITES-listed species for which Parties have designed/implemented relevant sustainable wildlife management policies.
  • Indicator 4.1.2: Percentage of Parties that co-developed or otherwise supported the capacity of indigenous peoples and local communities to pursue livelihoods.

 

Mapping with CBD - Aichi Targets

Aichi Target 4

By 2020, at the latest, Governments, business and stakeholders at all levels have taken steps to achieve or have implemented plans for sustainable production and consumption and have kept the impacts of use of natural resources well within safe ecological limits.

Aichi Target 5

By 2020, the rate of loss of all natural habitats, including forests, is at least halved and where feasible brought close to zero, and degradation and fragmentation is significantly reduced.

Aichi Target 7

By 2020 areas under agriculture, aquaculture and forestry are managed sustainably, ensuring conservation of biodiversity.

Aichi Target 8

By 2020, pollution, including from excess nutrients, has been brought to levels that are not detrimental to ecosystem function and biodiversity

Aichi Target 10

By 2015, the multiple anthropogenic pressures on coral reefs, and other vulnerable ecosystems impacted by climate change or ocean acidification are minimized, so as to maintain their integrity and functioning.

Aichi Target 11

By 2020, at least 17 per cent of terrestrial and inland water, and 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, are conserved through effectively and equitably managed, ecologically representative and well connected systems of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, and integrated into the wider landscapes and seascapes.

Aichi Target 13

By 2020, the genetic diversity of cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and of wild relatives, including other socio-economically as well as culturally valuable species, is maintained, and strategies have been developed and implemented for minimizing genetic erosion and safeguarding their genetic diversity.

Aichi Target 14

By 2020, ecosystems that provide essential services, including services related to water, and contribute to health, livelihoods and well-being, are restored and safeguarded, taking into account the needs of women, indigenous and local communities, and the poor and vulnerable.

Aichi Target 15

By 2020, ecosystem resilience and the contribution of biodiversity to carbon stocks has been enhanced, through conservation and restoration, including restoration of at least 15 per cent of degraded ecosystems, thereby contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation and to combating desertification.