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SDG Target 12.c

SDG Target 12.c

Rationalize inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption by removing market distortions, in accordance with national circumstances, including by restructuring taxation and phasing out those harmful subsidies, where they exist, to reflect their environmental impacts, taking fully into account the specific needs and conditions of developing countries and minimizing the possible adverse impacts on their development in a manner that protects the poor and the affected communities

Mapping with Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework

TARGET 18. Reduce Harmful Incentives by at Least $500 Billion per Year, and Scale Up Positive Incentives for Biodiversity

Identify by 2025, and eliminate, phase out or reform incentives, including subsidies, harmful for biodiversity, in a proportionate, just, fair, effective and equitable way, while substantially and progressively reducing them by at least 500 billion United States dollars per year by 2030, starting with the most harmful incentives, and scale up positive incentives for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.


Headline indicators:

  • 18.1 Positive incentives in place to promote biodiversity conservation and sustainable use
  • 18.2 Value of subsidies and other incentives harmful to biodiversity that have been eliminated, phased our or reformed

Component indicator:

  • Value of subsidies and other incentives harmful to biodiversity, that are redirected, repurposed or eliminated

Complementary indicators:

  • Number of countries with biodiversity-relevant taxes
  • Number of countries with biodiversity-relevant charges and fees
  • Number of countries with biodiversity-relevant tradable permit schemes
  • Trends in potentially environmentally harmful elements of government support to agriculture (producer support estimate)
  • Trends in the number and value of government fossil fuel support measures
  • Amount of fossil-fuel subsidies per unit of gross domestic product (production and consumption)